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This is a full update of a review first published on 4 December and subsequently updated on 11 and 18 December 2020 and 22 March 2021.

At the request of the National Public Health Emergency Team (NPHET), HIQA is undertaking a regular review of the public health measures and strategies that are in place internationally to limit the spread of COVID-19. The review focuses on the national response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 17 countries that experienced a resurgence in coronavirus cases in October 2020.

The countries comprise 12 EU/EEA countries (Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden), the UK (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), and Switzerland. The review is provided to the National Public Health Emergency Team (NPHET) to inform its response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

This review updates that of 18 December 2020. It contains updated epidemiological data and describes current public health measures, frameworks for living with COVID-19 and national testing strategies. Israel has also been included for this update only.

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